francis galton known for
"[26], This notion created a problem for Galton, as he could not reconcile the tendency of a population to maintain a normal distribution of traits from generation to generation with the notion of inheritance. He was a key figure in the Scientific Revolution of the 17th century. Leisurely expeditions in 1845–46 up the Nile River with friends and into the Holy Land alone were preliminaries to a carefully organized penetration into unexplored parts of southwestern Africa. Galton (1822-1911) was born to a prominent family from old money. Francis Galton was an English explorer and anthropologist best known for his research in eugenics and human intelligence. He offered it to Methuen for publication, but they showed little enthusiasm.

While Galton had previously invented the quincunx prior to February 1874, the 1877 version of the quincunx had a new feature that helped Galton demonstrate that a normal mixture of normal distributions is also normal.

Francis Crick is credited with co-discovering, along with James Watson, the double-helix structure of the DNA strand. Galton wrote to his niece that it should be either "smothered or superseded". He became very active in the British Association for the Advancement of Science, presenting many papers on a wide variety of topics at its meetings from 1858 to 1899. [31] Galton demonstrated this using a new version of quincunx, adding chutes to the apparatus to represent reversion. [43] This is the idea that the most salient and socially relevant personality differences in people's lives will eventually become encoded into language.

However, his technique did not prove useful and fell into disuse, although after much work on it including by photographers Lewis Hine and John L. Lovell and Arthur Batut. After leaving Cambridge without taking a degree, Galton continued his medical studies in London. In Galton's lab, participants could be measured to gain knowledge of their strengths and weaknesses. Galton obtained extensive data from a broad range of biographical sources which he tabulated and compared in various ways. [2] His book Hereditary Genius (1869) was the first social scientific attempt to study genius and greatness.
Moreover, over a period of 34 years, he concerned himself with improving standards of measurement. In a long series of experiments in 1869 to 1871, he transfused the blood between dissimilar breeds of rabbits, and examined the features of their offspring. He would typically charge people a small fee for his services. Galton first observed the phenomenon in the context of simple linear regression of data points. However, this model required a much larger degree of intergenerational natural selection than was plausible. Sir Francis Galton was a British science writer and amateur researcher of the late nineteenth century.

[7][60] (See also entry Modern physiognomy under Physiognomy).

In the 1990s, a hundred years after his discovery, much psychological research has examined the attractiveness of these faces, an aspect that Galton had remarked on in his original lecture. [18] He was the general secretary from 1863 to 1867, president of the Geographical section in 1867 and 1872, and president of the Anthropological Section in 1877 and 1885.

[10] His parents pressed him to enter the medical profession, and he studied for two years at Birmingham General Hospital and King's College London Medical School. The conditions under which regression toward the mean occurs depend on the way the term is mathematically defined. He briefly resumed his medical studies but the death of his father in 1844 left him emotionally destitute, though financially independent,[citation needed] and he terminated his medical studies entirely, turning to foreign travel, sport and technical invention. But he abandoned this idea and went on to study mathematics at Cambridge University. The next stations would examine strength of both pulling and squeezing with both hands. With this design, the total time spent in the exhibit was fourteen minutes for each pair. Galton was born at "The Larches", a large house in the Sparkbrook area of Birmingham, England, built on the site of "Fair Hill", the former home of Joseph Priestley, which the botanist William Withering had renamed. He concluded that the evidence favoured nature rather than nurture.

It is surprising that when Darwin first read this book, he wrote to the author: “You have made a convert of an opponent in one sense for I have always maintained that, excepting fools, men did not differ much in intellect, only in zeal and hard work.” This book doubtless helped Darwin to extend his evolution theory to humankind. Both families had Fellows of the Royal Society and members who loved to invent in their spare time. This required inventing novel measures of traits, devising large-scale collection of data using those measures, and in the end, the discovery of new statistical techniques for describing and understanding the data.

An 8-foot-tall (2.4 m) Probability Machine (named Sir Francis Galton) comparing stock market returns to the randomness of the beans dropping through the quincunx pattern. A note in the record states: "Francis Galton Trinity College student, gained his certificate 13 March 1845". [4] His quest for the scientific principles of diverse phenomena extended even to the optimal method for making tea.

[44] Galton's later statistical study of the probability of extinction of surnames led to the concept of Galton–Watson stochastic processes.

J.J. Thomson was a Nobel Prize-winning physicist whose research led to the discovery of electrons.

To his surprise, this was within 0.8% of the weight measured by the judges. He made a beauty map of Britain, based on a secret grading of the local women on a scale from attractive to repulsive. At first, Galton planned to become a doctor.

[41] In this publication, Galton defined what co-relation as a phenomenon that occurs when "the variation of the one [variable] is accompanied on the average by more or less variation of the other, and in the same direction. The second use for the data from his anthropometric laboratory is for statistical studies.

He became interested in weather and created the first weather map, showing different climate conditions across a geographical area. The novel described a utopia organised by a eugenic religion, designed to breed fitter and smarter humans. Galton called this reversion, as every progeny group was distributed at a value that was closer to the population average than the parent.

James Surowiecki[49] uses this weight-judging competition as his opening example: had he known the true result, his conclusion on the wisdom of the crowd would no doubt have been more strongly expressed.

He tabulated characteristics of their families, such as birth order and the occupation and race of their parents. As a result, subjects were taken through the laboratory in pairs so that explanations could be given to two at a time, also in the hope that one of the two would confidently take the initiative to go through all the tests first, encouraging the other. He devoted the latter part of his life to eugenics, i.e. He attempted to discover whether their interest in science was 'innate' or due to the encouragements of others. He was knighted in 1909.

Throughout his research Galton assumed that people who reacted faster were more intelligent than others. Galton died on January 17, 1911, in Haslemere, England, at the age of 88. In 1906, visiting a livestock fair, he stumbled upon an intriguing contest. For example, he wrote of dogs: "If a man breeds from strong, well-shaped dogs, but of mixed pedigree, the puppies will be sometimes, but rarely, the equals of their parents. This approach was later taken up enthusiastically by Karl Pearson and W. F. R. Weldon; together, they founded the highly influential journal Biometrika in 1901. In his Hereditary Genius (1869), in which he used the word genius to denote “an ability that was exceptionally high and at the same time inborn,” his main argument was that mental and physical features are equally inherited—a proposition that was not accepted at the time. In the late 1860s, Galton conceived of a measure to quantify normal variation: the standard deviation.[45].

without further study, in 1847.) Soon afterwards, in response to an enquiry, he reported[47] the mean of the guesses as 1,197 pounds, but did not comment on its improved accuracy. He pointed out some of the tendencies in British society, such as the late marriages of eminent people, and the paucity of their children, which he thought were dysgenic.

The answer was not "on average directly above". Galton notes in his analysis that this omission was mostly for practical reasons. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription.

On 29 October 1901, Galton chose to address eugenic issues when he delivered the second Huxley lecture at the Royal Anthropological Institute. If the qualities were hereditary, he reasoned, there should be more eminent men among the relatives than among the general population. In the 20th century Galton’s name became associated with eugenics. To bolster these results, and to attempt to make a distinction between 'nature' and 'nurture' (he was the first to apply this phrase to the topic), he devised a questionnaire that he sent out to 190 Fellows of the Royal Society. [52] After examining forearm and height measurements, Galton independently rediscovered the concept of correlation in 1888[53][54] and demonstrated its application in the study of heredity, anthropology, and psychology. [5], As the initiator of scientific meteorology, he devised the first weather map, proposed a theory of anticyclones, and was the first to establish a complete record of short-term climatic phenomena on a European scale.


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